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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 126-129

Life skill training workshop in geriatric mental health for postgraduate students: An appraisal

1 Department of Geriatric Mental Health, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Career Medical College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission02-Dec-2020
Date of Decision10-May-2021
Date of Acceptance08-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication31-Jan-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nisha Mani Pandey
Department of Geriatric Mental Health, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jgmh.jgmh_48_20

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Background: Management of mentally ill elderly is a challenging task. Due to the lack of awareness, training opportunities in the course curriculum, and nil to negligible knowledge/ understanding/ exposures, allied mental health professionals are hardly available in geriatric mental health (GMH). Awareness generating orientation/ skill development workshops/ seminars/ webinars/ conferences may develop the interest in the young generations, which further may help in generating human resources in the subject. The present article aims to provide a snapshot of the Life Skill Training (LST) workshop developed for psychology students and discusses its effectiveness. Materials and Methods: The authors had an opportunity to organize and facilitate orientation workshop named as “life skill training in GMH for the students of psychology in Varanasi. A total of 86 students had participated in two independent workshops. All participants' self-rated appraisal was obtained on a five-point scale (ranging from very poor to very good) for all ten core life skills as laid out by the World Health Organization. The workshop was conducted by applying the tools such as imagination, reflection, communication, presentation, problem-solving, critical thinking, and sharing. The pre-post assessment was done, and qualitative feedback was received from the participants. Results: The results reveal that participants observed betterment in self on each life skill as the obtained value of mean scores after the workshop was found to be slightly more on each of the core life skills. Conclusion: The orientation workshop sensitizes the students regarding the issues related to the field, which may allow them to pursue the subject further.

Keywords: Appraisal, geriatric mental health, life skill training, orientation, snapshot

How to cite this article:
Pandey NM, Tripathi RK, Tiwari S. Life skill training workshop in geriatric mental health for postgraduate students: An appraisal. J Geriatr Ment Health 2021;8:126-9

How to cite this URL:
Pandey NM, Tripathi RK, Tiwari S. Life skill training workshop in geriatric mental health for postgraduate students: An appraisal. J Geriatr Ment Health [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 Jun 4];8:126-9. Available from:

  Introduction Top

Life skills can be described in terms of those abilities which enable individual to deal effectively and positively in performing daily chores and ensure his/her full participation. Therefore, everyone needs to develop these skills in self, especially the adults who are on the path of starting their new innings related to career. Further, to excel in a particular profession, one needs to develop specific life skills. For achieving the excellence training workshops, coaching or proper guidance is required. Nowadays, to orient and equip the students in higher education, life skill training (LST) workshops are being organized, so that the upcoming generation may make strategic plans to achieve their tasks and accomplish their target effectively. As we know that to encourage individual qualities and interpersonal skills as well as to uphold our critical thinking, some active involvement is essentially required. Such active and promotional activities can be organized in the form of some hours to 1-day short-term workshop, 1 week/1 month training to orient and equip the individual. Such short-term workshops strengthen one's emotional quotient (EQ), and EQ is much more important than intelligence quotient (IQ).[1],[2] EQ involves emotional-cognitive strategies which incorporate one's attentiveness, observance, and self-regulation.[3] Consistent educational efforts with life skill workshops or training may enhance one's EQ and help in making prudent strategies to lead a successful personal and professional life. It is indicated that life skills training is a people-centered approach that is planned, programmed, deliberate, and arranged to alter the anticipated or projected course of development.[4],[5] Further, improvements in skill may be gained through strategic intervention; this helps in developing positive self-image, independent decision-making, and healthy problem-solving, assertive communication, etc.[6]

In the present scenario, the young generation had many alternatives for their professional careers with numerous demands. This is the time when the youth work hard for developing his/her own identity, build relationships, and try to establish self as an independent person. Such a need to handle their emotions and feelings develops personal identity, resisting peer pressure, building relationships, or acquiring information on education services, not only gives them greater independence but also due to restrictions and struggles at times, they get frustrated which further affects their subjective well-being. Moreover, at this point in time, the youth needs guidance and suggestions to remain relaxed and comfortable to utilize their full strength. In the recent past, the authors had an opportunity to organize a workshop on LST in geriatric mental health (GMH) for the students of psychology. The authors thought to prepare a snapshot of the entire activity so that the same can be published and circulated widely. Further, discussions/feedback/suggestions are invited to make the program more useful and practical. The present article aimed to highlight the procedure of LST and its impact on the students of psychology.


  1. The objective of this study was to provide a snapshot of LST workshop developed for the students of psychology
  2. To evaluate and discuss the effectiveness of the training workshop.

  Materials and Methods Top

A strategic plan was developed as the following to make the workshop fruitful and effective. In two successive workshops, a total of 86 university and college students were participated. First of all, we have made a schedule of the workshop and sent the same to the organizers.

  1. Ice-breaking exercises and introductory session
  2. Brainstorming
  3. Common GMH problems
  4. Identification and screening of GMH problems
  5. Exposure exercise and discussions
  6. Soft skill training
  7. Nonpharmacological management for GMH
  8. Feedback and expectations.

After meeting the participants, we have informed them about the need for the program and started the workshop with the introductory session. After the introduction, they were asked to rate their competency on a five-point scale, i.e., 1 (very poor competency), 2 (poor competency), 3 (average competency), 4 (good competency), and 5 (very good competency) category on all ten core life skills, i.e., (1) self-awareness, (2) empathy, (3) critical thinking, (4) creative thinking, (5) decision-making, (6) problem-solving, (7) effective communication, (8) interpersonal relationship, (9) coping with stress, and (10) coping with emotions.

The responses were taken on the prepost assessment pro forma. We applied the various ways (tools) for facilitating the exercises of the workshop; these were imagination brainstorming, reflection, discussion, communication, presentation, critical thinking, and sharing. After the completion of the workshop, they were again asked to rate themselves and also give their qualitative comments/input/suggestions if any, regarding the workshop.

The obtained data were further analyzed through the SPSS software. Theme of qualitative data was also analyzed and presented.

  Results Top

A total of 86 participants were there in the workshop; all of them were the students of psychology. The mean age of these student participants was 22.53 ± 1.706; the majority of them were females (70%). [Table 1] reveals the mean scores referring self-rated competency status of participants on all ten core life skills obtained on a five-point scale before and after exposure to the LST workshop.
Table 1: Self-rated mean and standard deviations of participants obtained before and after exposure to the life skill training workshop

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[Table 1] reveals that on each life skill participants observed betterment in self as the obtained value of mean scores after the workshop was found to be slightly more for each of the core life skills. The table shows that on each of the core life skills, betterment was reported by the participants.

Further, to evaluate the effectiveness of the training workshop, we have analyzed the differences of mean [Figure 1], 95% confidence interval of the difference, and its significance [Table 2].
Figure 1: Effectiveness of training workshop in improving core life skills

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Table 2: Effectiveness of the training workshop on various core life skills

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[Figure 1] shows the effectiveness of training workshops in improving the core life skills of the participants after attending the same. The mean difference for each core skill was found to be positively effective except for creative thinking. To evaluate the mean differences on two-sided, 95% confidence interval, and its significance, the data were further analyzed and provided in [Table 2].

[Table 2] illustrates with 95% confidence that there is a significant difference in the mean scores of participants for all core life skills excluding creative thinking.

The qualitative data (n = 21) were also analyzed and we found that the majority of participants expressed satisfaction with the workshop session; about 76% (n = 16) felt that workshop was amazing/great/nice/full of knowledge/learnt a lot of new things/good learning/learnt many practical aspects of life which will help in future. In feedback, 15 of the participants given their viewpoint and the majority wanted more opportunities for such workshop for more time. They also insisted to give more knowledge about the mental health problems of older adults.

  Discussion Top

The present manuscript describes the pattern of LST workshop and its impact on various core skills of students of psychology. The findings of the workshop show that the mean score on almost every core life skill was found to be better after the workshop, and mean differences were found to be significant except for creative thinking. It is reported that life skill teaching and training have positive outcomes when taught as a part of curriculum.[7] Another article reveals that LST program with continued support significantly improves participants' knowledge and confidence.[8] A few studies related to social skills training report that such training significantly increases one's social growth, self-esteem, personal adequacy and helps in reducing adjustment problems, and inappropriate aggressive behaviors in adolescents.[9],[10] It is also reported that life skills training is effective in increasing self-esteem, self-efficacy, and adjustment of adolescents.[7],[11] However, these studies have been carried out to target one or another particular behavior and see the impact on school children or teenagers. There are hardly any studies in India that reveal the impact of life skill workshop/observership or training related to a particular subject. The present article reveals that preliminary preparations have its own impact, an organized and planned program involving all the participants of the group not only ensures activeness and alertness among everyone but also develops the skill of appreciation and gratitude like values in self.

Life skills training workshops in a particular subject may be introduced as an effective approach because it considers all the aspects of Miller's triangle, i.e., knowledge, skill, and attitude hence help in improving analytical, social, and emotional skills to deal with the patients effectively. Such workshops may enhance individuals' EQ, which is one of the essential ingredients for adaptive and positive attitude.


Our sincere gratitude to Prof (Dr.) Tara Singh, the then Head, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University (BHU) Varanasi, Dr. Traymabak Tiwari, and Dr. Sandeep Kumar, Faculty of Psychology Department, BHU, Varanasi, and all the organizing committee members of the National Workshop on Life Skill Training. We wish to thank to Dr. Rachna Srivastava, Principal of Vasant Kanya Mahavidyalay, Dr. Anju Lata Singh, and Dr. Shubhra Sinha, Faculty of Psychology, Department Vasant Kanya Mahavidyalay, Kamachcha, Varanasi for allowing organizing the life skill training workshop in Geriatric Mental Health to sensitize their college students. We also extend our thanks to each student, without whom the program's execution was not possible, for their active participation and valuable feedback.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Goleman D. Emotional intelligence: Issues in paradigm building. In: The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for, Measure, and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. Vol. 13. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 1
Goleman DP. Emotional Intelligence: Why it can Matter more than IQ for Character, Health and Lifelong Achievement. New York, NY, USA: Bantam Books; 1995.  Back to cited text no. 2
Scheier MF, Carver CS. Self-consciousness, outcome expectancy, and persistence. J Res Personal 1982;16:409-18.  Back to cited text no. 3
Jones NR. Practical Counseling and Helping Skills. New Delhi: Sage Publications; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 4
Cortina MA, Kahn K, Fazel M, Hlungwani T, Tollman S, Bhana A, et al. School based interventions can play a critical role in enhancing children's development and health in the developing world. Child Care Health Dev 2007;4:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
Persha AJ. Early Intervention Challenges and Changing Concepts: Perspectives on Special Education. New Delhi: Neelkamal Publications; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 6
Yadav P, Iqbal N. Impact of life skill training on self-esteem, adjustment and empathy among adolescents. J Indian Acad Appl Psychol Spec Issue 2009;35:61-70.  Back to cited text no. 7
Pradeep BS, Arvind BA, Ramaiah S, Shahane S, Garady L, Arelingaiah M, et al. Quality of a life skills training program in Karnataka, India – A quasi experimental study. BMC Public Health 2019;19:489.  Back to cited text no. 8
Pasha G, Gorjian B. The effect of training social skills on increase social development and decrease behavioural disorders in mild retarded children. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2010;4:4011-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
Vahedi SH, Fathizar E, Nasb DH, Moghaddam M, Kiani A. The effect of social skills training on decreasing the aggression of pre- School children. Iran J Psychiatry 2007;2:108-14.  Back to cited text no. 10
Winkleby MA, Feighery E, Dunn M, Kole S, Ahn D, Killen JD. Effects of an advocacy intervention to reduce smoking among teenagers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:269-75.  Back to cited text no. 11


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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